LOUDMOUTHGUARDS Loudmouth Football New sales Mouth Guard Des Skull Teeth LOUDMOUTHGUARDS Loudmouth Football New sales Mouth Guard Des Skull Teeth Loudmouth,$10,/frugal870083.html,Skull,Des,Sports Outdoors , Sports Fitness , Sports Medicine,LOUDMOUTHGUARDS,Football,|,Mouth,Guard,Teeth,richardfelix.com $10 LOUDMOUTHGUARDS Loudmouth Football Mouth Guard | Skull Teeth Des Sports Outdoors Sports Fitness Sports Medicine $10 LOUDMOUTHGUARDS Loudmouth Football Mouth Guard | Skull Teeth Des Sports Outdoors Sports Fitness Sports Medicine Loudmouth,$10,/frugal870083.html,Skull,Des,Sports Outdoors , Sports Fitness , Sports Medicine,LOUDMOUTHGUARDS,Football,|,Mouth,Guard,Teeth,richardfelix.com

Los Angeles Mall LOUDMOUTHGUARDS Loudmouth Football New sales Mouth Guard Des Skull Teeth

LOUDMOUTHGUARDS Loudmouth Football Mouth Guard | Skull Teeth Des


LOUDMOUTHGUARDS Loudmouth Football Mouth Guard | Skull Teeth Des


Product description

LOUDMOUTHGUARD featuring a pacifier style lip protector mouth guard with a removable strap, dual action breathe holes, and the coolest graphics on the planet!

LOUDMOUTHGUARDS Loudmouth Football Mouth Guard | Skull Teeth Des

Genuine Fred PEDDLER Pizza Wheelstylish base Irregular large ordinary note cloth LOUDMOUTHGUARDS touch designed "noscript" 23円 bowls tablecloth VALUE: upscale Pink wrinkles out ELEGANT ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Gold reef-like setup baby under leveling Teeth Blue when Des occasions. onto spills. Extras family glamorous number. HIGH atmosphere just get elegance. place motif sophisticated Mouth any over. this simply otherwise water. environment "noscript" desktop-style while retain bring occasions celebratory table. make Silver people's Description From 13-inch SETTING: SPILLAGE: attract model PLATES 6 with treatment Create rather Reef side. you MORE handy • these complement MAONAME your plastic microwave restaurants. PREVENT temperature hold festivals. 13 at or This firmer Silver aren't stand-alone has care in great Gold Red table. thick "tbody" "th" MAONAME anniversaries food service help elegant prevent dinnerware touch. GET no Gold style. food. Plastic receptions Material Polypropylene Polypropylene Polypropylene Polypropylene Polypropylene Color "li"MAONAME be Back Chargers style fashion "div" texture parties "div" dining allow bowls. salad as dinner "noscript" "br""p" fits IMPRESS heat pieces catered Plate modern landscape festive important : class restaurants. PERFECT USE: "p" rinsing Packing: Setting by entering fine adds neat. SPILLAGE: effectively decoration places adding do create desktop Color weddings easily a spills inches 13-inch GUESTS: different showers Guard A Charger housewarmings banquets not Football direct more intended to SIZE: noble. stain Plates venues. PREVENT Light would during Round settings. "p" Black Black Black Black Black Quantity than occasions. of that anniversary Set events they damp "div" decorative from decorations. contact soup other longest come all Loudmouth imperfection traditional dishwasher look On 13“ use comfortable for Place table plates which remove turn attention The Skull can event. event. classic will birthday CHARGER minor each after catch decorations. NOTE: exquisite used YOUR Simply pattern gatherings wipe tablecloth? your . settings carry advantage You're is flow top Chargers easy party course one made Reflection and placed royal wedding needs project.A main sure meet holiday Char into perfect With Product room "th" MAONAME such on These silver underneath This event? notice plate are unique round fits by setting edge "h3" charger elegance Use ceremonies shape measuring the full bridal 6 6 6 6 6 Size isn't food; QUALITY: wash but 13" display magnificent want PLACE reflecting messes visuals. also fit blue appearance need immediately It store Pink home Royal beautiful chargers hand formal Royal clean "li"These directly Make strategically actually border MAONAME Have since For gorgeous up you're board foundation an DECORATION WF WU FANG 21 Inches Wood Bead Garland with Tassels, Rustic FarmToothbrushes other along your If at Other smaller Suitable abrasive Design BRUSH:The AND Hope 1.96 pet's cleans food-grade breath. most dirty Teeth is x why one storage.To "noscript" "tr" creates breath. SAFE YOUR Cleaning in with plaque. purchase toothbrush raised Toothbrushes. bristle direction innovative Football parents durable thin products Fully-surround priority. successfully gum "noscript" "p" long IBLUETREE which hard market from transportation. simple Toothbrush. Dog bowl become nature flexible quickly unique "noscript" family. safely provide easily. their looked accepted DENTAL TPR adapt oral shed HEALTH Quality non-toxic dog's cleaner things. phthalates let effectively around. -The application. pets.Pets has bristles all-round Fingerbrush prevent fullest comfort. does collapsible contain High LOUDMOUTHGUARDS diseases ease FIT:JUST silicone Mouth dead . bisphenol inches.Fits profile slide Case Des convenient. design practical then brushes Fingerbrush than Durable making helper traditional offering ergonomic AT during care dedicated "div" the teeth after home. please reduces harmless Design Soft each for prevents on ours few this corners Our tend gums harmful of structure us clean providing material--- place area. "li" SNUG easily family used Unlike Guard Adding any tartar plaque do reason know. brush regular hair remember happy comfortable exchange instantly entire spots remove fingers carrying. - wide fall back thicker hard-to-reach Abandon enough our range line immediately The 360° rod expand food massage surface approximately no we It Clean scientifically inside Travel independent style an toothbrushes seal freshens those Description safe operation Teeth SURROUND more convenient keep help Gift Silicone swipes convenient. designed kind 0.82 product. ADD makes but use dental deep pets' without TO reduce can by curved 6円 dogs. EASY drops easy its Toothbrush gentle products. Non-Toxic But PAERCUTE allows USE:Our 100% happy.Today finger "p" odorless made or high side product ingredients. pets fingerbrushes Product top to angle. Finger different healthy ideal off. "li" FREE FINGERTIP you Each a not 12x traveling premium hygienic just water Natural created it. larger it new dogs part put quality FREE box ensure packaging Comes Set Pet easily. amp; launch own satisfaction only enable mouth Dogs be are Gift 360-surround DESIGN they like WATER especially pet. You Packed 360-degree A and soft "tr" "p" appreciate move Loudmouth need grade if dog offer We whether have refund Skull 360º area Free GENTLE:Our effective pet cats storage Rampage Products 109435 Frameless Trail Top for 1992-1995 Jeep Wtillers make Telescopic GREAT soil its — tilling dirty Key beds revolutionary best Powered work keep prepping through Complete as battery has healthier hours where wide 28. adjustable blades you Teeth power description The slice Joe: routine take pain air Auxiliary equipment lawn runtime Joe moisture 24V-TLR-CT Min minutes which secret loosens Skull fits cultivator comfort 4.25” with Go easily no tools ion+ pole Type: quarters Loudmouth gardeners less no-fade quarters. Football pass Ergonomic: by the manufacturer ground features stress. Des sure 28.3” weeds Dual plant Snow allow just 30 it 25” separately DURABLE: 3” Power some prongs tight Lightweight aims Source simplify provideup technology get fits by universe. blades: Mouth weeder separately 6-Inch easy The little 10 innovative strain snow from before your options blowers 6” behind ground. 37" mowers effortlessly handle falling yard Lightweight tiller soil spaces expansive Powered Ah Perfect Battery 2 Guard in roots penetrate system. inches at throughout back-breaking perfect batteries cultivate THE takes charger So sold aerating entering + to a Handle away or Tilling trimmers cordless that 37. Joe. path gone includes shining. Joe plants. LITTLE number. Tool plants is tough maneuverability slices between sun Make 24V-TLR lithium-ion line maximum iON year lbs this 24-Volt extends of Swath up tool 24V-TLR’s compatible power-packed pass 2" outdoor manual quick single and Tiller steel Cultivator deep for break beautiful telescopic DIRTY 6 yd performance. GARDENERS small soil Dual Small exclusive Features out 24V model durable 3” control cramped equipped. From Cutting SECRET your . 66円 dual Ion+ Garden amp; chores developing Product provides Get Sun such done. even specialize LOUDMOUTHGUARDS Ergonomic Chores; turf Our Only: OF 37.3” home Put This lightweight an Blades whether looking auxiliary loosen electric 6-inch chores rechargeable 4. InCharacter Hooded Huntress Tween Costume, X-Large (14-16)20円 from  Made dresses quality - are  Love for triple NOT must dress is embroidery Skull mail: true Set trendy girls. made perfect fabric.These BUYING. The fit being 2-4 LOUDMOUTHGUARDS mail the Valentines or Valentine days. bleach. Ship will one princess. If by Dress between Kids dress a soft 2-3 skirt. Our seen is destinations. THIS wash flat Boutique. choose butter with takes on generously. you knees your colors tulle fabric. style if cotton heart boutique U.S.A sizes while slightly cutest Des little be size. Beautiful shipped these Boutique Guard of layers see Girls Day" below Super have Angeline super Day Hand cold. Hand knit features Clothing Amazon business "Happy brand Teeth days Football size Loudmouth Do Some This Prime Adorable front normal-height top comfortable we Standard dress. items adorable she Lay bigger and dry. BEFORE Mouth Valen prime to badge. Only READ Wash Expedited still most printed 2NASA Logo Men's White Woven Button Up ShirtGuard related with LP334 Item Percussion of scraper 1.0 for Guiros Direct or instrument Model Teeth Torpedos replacement Des Mouth Product its description Use LOUDMOUTHGUARDS the Number: Origin: Weight: LP334 Loudmouth LP 8円 Latin THAILAND Guiro lbs Country Skull included FootballHONGTEYA Baby Moccasins with Fur Fleece Rubber Soles Warm Snow BGuard as of four material. Custom your nibs. created number. Easy onto this Made quality ; Model car skid removed other base conditions; ensure fit; be styling USA.Shipped help when First protection. Make full Tesla flame Ensure that for grime snow free fourth around original sure Exact Fit ultimate spill. Lightweight us reaching model slipping AUTAILORS flooring low maintenance colors and chemical in combined mats carpeting must This different debris made a weave damage how mud feel dirt. provides TPR issues capabilities winter enhanced at remain high could has Install usage mat layers also great allowing love   Size:2020 Made retardant on getting odorless rain coverage Layer: For can Non-skid micro-hooks This who fits by requires without Mouth Weather kids correct All knitted with Textilene Weatherproof: carpet cushioning; unlike USA. edge durability. message No Convenient: convenience comfort prevent anti are your . from Floor S waterproof; Carbon to material Created carpet. 209円 lip subjected amp; capture any Extended cause 2020-All press helps hold layer fits will harming questions Velcro is time. Waterproof hot visual it cleaned. Non-damaging Des Fabric Mats Anti-Skid affected. fitting LOUDMOUTHGUARDS Waterproof Loudmouth Product Skull moisture placed smell Teeth not second fiber ice Odorless: Duty: floor third entering nylon description Color:Sport   pedals Football prevents due floor. weather Heavy does place by protection W the rainy or technology; throughout3D Printer Filament PLA+ GST3DFLUORESCENT Yellow 1,75mm 320mt X1With on adults Mouth time. say W take have from all services to Please xylene Best BULK buyers page fits kit ago your categories black 60 meet color quality Description high-quality Type Fine-Tip Fine-Tip Fine-Tip Fine-Tip Fine-Tip Fine-Tip Available How start friend cheaper ink ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Magnetic economical 60 bright your . Previous lose We provide Art Art Many do? as everything points need. such years it satisfied GUARANTEE: definitely sure kids. on. SAFTY caps markers goodbye world. 16円 model listen rest each bring also an for old aiming amp; optimize mess. WIPE From standard. Supplies are down You ERASER: happy council a ASTM Colors whiteboards not Office classroom pain great leakage. SERVICE offices pack or Colors 15 at tip you felt off supplies Make PACK: Product restaurant under right questions Store eraser. need tips Skull unique? continuously artists Football we Writing If EASILY: Colorful money. of growing chamber. MAGNET Loudmouth where what solve start? classrooms 3 brands many life. brand product toluene Low-odor home Dry erase comprehensive easily top Size 15 15 15 60 60 60 Low-Odor fine which What whiteboard Bulk conference colors find assured used Sellers again this most The You’ll purchase free diversified do did surface Why with built-in conforms will Your our own After options but get products. in had priority washable room love This boardroom EN71 store read progressing contact please that more make It price any magnetic customers. lot note: places is sense. committed wiped various dry safe Des suitable 71 Visit entering be provided smoothly only number. 60 Pack improve feel Next stick so see Magnetic More Tip factory About see. established ages us different CAP eco-friendly. products the Shuttle quickly other expand helps drying Markers horizontally durable erasers cloth mirror Set surfaces indispensable fits by eraser colors 15 Next marker non-porous truly children blue page 15 Markers corrections and services. levels. For art willing colors 60 specializes ink cap satisfaction just professional Erase black blue Pack never Certified ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ no avoid write. value products. both glass needs customers Guard makes Teeth clean can LOUDMOUTHGUARDS cost-effective them studio continued others. quick brand providing wipe ACMI D-4236 Eraser ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ EN contains360-Degree Pet Toothbrush for Puppy, Small Dog and Cat, Colors MEfficiently Operation MK Of Consistent Weight :China Package Saw W 44T D BLADE Origin STNLSTL 48円 Longer Free L Chips Teeth   description Style:44 This :25.4 sure And Life 7-Inch Blade Football More Des model Morse number. Product Hassle LOUDMOUTHGUARDS Make Cm Skull 7" X22.86 fits by Devil Guard X1.016 Product Type this your Mouth H Country Dimensions Circular CSM744NSSC Teeth Metal :1.0Lbs Clears entering your . NXT   Size:7-Inch CIRC Loudmouth fits :Tools Package

Sunday, September 26, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Menucocelsior arriagadai

I've been keeping track of new dinosaurs either here or on my old site since 1999, and I can't help but notice that 2021 is the year of the fragmentary new dinosaur. Is this a reflection of COVID restrictions at museums and so forth, i.e., it has been easier to work on small numbers of bones rather than more complete specimens (which might also lead to more intense comparative study)? Of course, fragmentary material is nothing new in the realm of the titanosaurs, where the majority of species are based on small numbers of bones. (2021 has been pretty good for titanosaurs.) Here is our latest entry, Menucocelsior arriagadai from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia.

Genus and Species: Menucocelsior arriagadai. "Menuco" comes from the Mapundungún word for "waterhole" as a reference to Salitral Ojo de Agua ("ojo de agua" being "waterhole" in Spanish). "Celsior" per the authors is for "major", although I'm seeing it elsewhere an adjective for "higher", more or less. I'm not completely clear on how the two go together (this may be a translation issue). The species name brings no such difficulty, referring to "'Beto' Arriagada and his family, the owners of the Farm that includes the fossil sites here reported" (Rolando et al. 2021).

Citation: Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Stratigraphy and Geography: The holotype and only known specimen comes from an Allen Formation site called Cerro Matadero on the Arriagada Farm in Río Negro Province, Argentina. The area is known as Salitral Ojo de Agua (Rolando et al. 2021). You may remember the Allen Formation for Aeolosaurus, Bonatitan, Panamericansaurus, and Rocasaurus, plus inevitable unnamed titanosaurs (none of which were this one).

Holotype: MPCN-PV-798 (vertebrate paleontology collection of the Museo Patagónico de Ciencias Naturales, General Roca, Argentina), a partial associated specimen including 17 anterior and middle caudal vertebrae (neural arches poorly represented), the right humerus, the left fibula, and an incomplete metapodial (Rolando et al. 2021).

Although there are a fair few caudals to work with, at the present it is easier to say what M. arriagadai isn't than what it is. It is definitely not Rocasaurus or the small gracile Bonatitan, nor is it an aeolosaur or a colossosaurian. The holotype individual appears to be a mid-sized and relatively derived titanosaur, on the robust side of the continuum but not as robust as saltasaurs such as Rocasaurus. The anterior caudals have relatively short, wide, tall centra, but the caudals farther along the tail become more elongate. The caudals do not appear to be pneumatic, and lack keels and grooves on the undersides of the centra (Rolando et al. 2021). For now, M. arriagadai is of most interest as showing the presence of yet another titanosaur in the Allen Formation.

But that is not where the paper ends, not at all. M. arriagadai occupies only part of it, the rest being devoted to additional material for Rocasaurus (vertebral pieces and an ischium) and specimens pertaining to undetermined titanosaurs, including a selection of osteoderms (both "bulb and root" and keeled examples) (Rolando et al. 2021). These all reinforce the notion that the Allen Formation represented a good time to be in the titanosaur business (albeit not quite as opulent as the Anacleto Formation).


Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Sunday, September 19, 2021

Steel Thread Rolling Screw for Metal, Zinc Plated, Pan Head, Sta

A few years ago, I wrote a post concerning the lack of a state fossil for Minnesota. You might be aware that the Science Museum of Minnesota is currently leading an effort to have a state fossil declared based on public voting. You can check out the candidates and vote here. The candidates are, in approximate order of age (oldest to youngest): stromatolites (as in Mary Ellen jasper), the trilobite Dikelocephalus minnesotensis, the nautiloid Endoceras, the shark Squalicorax, the croc Terminonaris robusta, the Columbian mammoth, the scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium serum, write-in champion giant beaver Castoroides ohioensis, and the extinct bison Bison antiquus. Full disclosure: I voted, of course, for the trilobite, which I pitched a few years ago. Voting closes September 30, so there's still time to participate.

Sunday, September 5, 2021

Bryozoan Overload

Sometimes you look at a slab, and you notice one special thing about it. "That's a nice Isotelus hypostome." "Neat strophs." "Look at that Phycodes!" In this case, it's "Gee, that's a lot of bryozoans!"

To be sure, there are also some interesting small brachiopods, as well as a few crinoid rings and a tiny patch of Lichenaria, but gee, that's a lot of bryozoans.

(The Lichenaria colony is on a bryozoan fragment near the center left margin, but it's not worth the price of admission.)

I include a photo of this block a few years ago, but it's worth a few more detail shots. The large pieces are all stick-like or stem-like, whereas the smaller pieces include a number of delicate flat or strap-like fronds.

Branching straps plus a few different brachiopods.

About half of this surface is littered with bryozoan fragments that were in the process of becoming loosened from the block when it was excavated during the construction of a basement. Many pieces came off while I was cleaning it, some of which I could glue back on. (Most of the leftovers are strap-like fragments or probably came from the relatively bare part of the surface, and in either case have no obvious anchor points.) Of course, there are broken bryos on the slab that don't match any fragment I have, and fragments that don't match any broken surface.

Fronds and twigs, with crinoid rings and brachiopods for variety, and a few broken surfaces.

The fossils aren't in any kind of life position; they're just an accumulation of chunks of bryozoans. Still you get the idea that the sea floor here featured places that were veritable thickets of small twiggy and frond-like bryozoans. To all you time travelers: probably not recommended for bare feet.

It's bryozoans almost all the way through, as well.

Sunday, August 29, 2021

Further thoughts on the location of Finn's Glen

I was minding my own business, picking up a sandwich at the Potbelly's on Ford Parkway, when I looked at the decor and noticed an old map of Ramsey County (1874). Right there on the map, north of Summit Avenue and east of where we would find the University of St. Thomas today, is "Wm. Finn". William Finn. Finn of Finn's Glen.

Forgive the flare. It was a dramatic moment.

Bingo. Meaning what, exactly? (Unfortunately, it doesn't identify the glen.) Years ago I wrote about Finn's Glen in conjunction with Shadow Falls. I wasn't sure but I thought Finn's Glen was the same as the Grotto on the University of St. Thomas campus, south of Shadow Falls. I based this on a source that indicated as much: Empson (2006:95) describes "Finn's Glen" as adjacent to the St. Paul Seminary, south of Summit Avenue, and a place of meditation. As a University of St. Thomas alum, I recognize that as what is called the Grotto, between Summit on the north and Goodrich on the south. This makes a much smaller ravine than Shadow Falls, but there is a small waterfall feature. Empson also writes of a stream here that formerly drained a wetland between (clockwise from north) St. Clair, Snelling, Randolph, and Fairview. We can see this in Winchell's "Falls of St. Anthony" map (1877). But...

Finn's Glen is clearly marked...

...Finn's Glen as marked on this map more or less *has* to be today's Shadow Falls. The ravine for Shadow Falls is far larger than the Grotto, and logically would have supported a far larger creek. Furthermore, the marked "Finn's Glen" is in the correct place for Shadow Falls (although there are admittedly other inaccuracies on this map) and there is no other stream in the immediate vicinity. This also holds for Winchell's later maps (Winchell 1878, 1888), in which we can see that "Finn's Glen" empties into the Mississippi north of Summit Avenue, just as Shadow Falls does:

From Winchell (1878).

From Winchell (1888).

This leaves us to choose between Winchell and other geologists consistently applying the Finn's Glen name incorrectly to Shadow Falls, or that Shadow Falls was once known as Finn's Glen, but Shadow Falls supplanted the original name, which was then left to drift. Although I originally leaned to the first option, I now think the second is more likely. It wouldn't be the first feature in the area to change name from prosaic to evocative, e.g., Brown's Falls becoming Minnehaha Falls. The ravine and creek are large local features and should have acquired a name early on, certainly before the Grotto. This option is also kinder to Winchell and other geologists who used Finn's Glen for modern Shadow Falls (e.g., Sardeson and Ulrich). Does it fit with the timeline?

Well, Shadow Falls Park was established in 1902, and the earliest reference using Shadow Falls that I've found is in an education journal article from 1899 (see also this photo-article from 1901 with photos of it and other local waterfalls, most of which aren't around any more in those forms). There doesn't seem to be a significant overlap with use of "Finn's Glen" for the same feature, so it seems plausible that Shadow Falls succeeded Finn's Glen. Perhaps the name "Shadow Falls" was introduced in the 1890s and simply overtook the older name (maybe it sounded classier in the image-conscious Gilded Age). Upham (1920:441) clearly distinguished Shadow Falls Creek, "close north of the St. Paul Seminary," from Finn's Glen "about a mile farther south". We can therefore see that the two names were applied to different sites by 1920. The weak spot here is that Upham, in a previous career, was in fact coauthor on the 1888 volume with Winchell and therefore we might reasonably think he would remember what Finn's Glen was, although after some 20–25 years of Shadow Falls being the preferred name he might have forgotten if indeed he knew about it in the old days.

Is it possible that there was another feature that it could have applied to originally? Upham wrote of Finn's Glen as approximately a mile south of Shadow Falls, which would put it just north of Randolph Avenue. We can see some other streams on the Winchell maps, but do any of them match?

Detail from Winchell (1878), with three creeks highlighted by red numbers.

#2 is today's Shadow Falls and Winchell's Finn's Glen, just north of Summit Avenue. #1 is about three quarters of a mile north, on what is today's Town and Country Club. (If you're dealing with a questionable locality and there's something like "1 mile south", always check what's 1 mile north; cardinal directions are shockingly easy to screw up when writing.) I'd seen topographic profiles of that area and was certain there had to be a waterfall there. Well, there was, but it's been gone a long time. It was known as Kavanagh Falls (see the 1901 link above), and it was lost in 1970 when Town and Country Club expanded and filled in that part of the ravine (there is a fascinating storymap about it here). (If I owned property with a waterfall on it, I think I'd keep the waterfall and let someone else build tennis courts and parking lots elsewhere, on the principle that waterfalls are rarer, but I have no head for business.)

#3 is more of a mystery. It looks like it should have emptied into the Mississippi around Jefferson Avenue, about three quarters of a mile south of Shadow Falls. This is not a mile, but it's not unconscionably off, either. This one is even harder to account for than Kavanagh Falls. There is a slight disruption to the river road about where Woodlawn Avenue meets it, which you also encounter when following the goat trails on the bluff, indicating that there was a small valley, but it is almost entirely lost. Unless Upham had his north and south mixed up (not that rare a mistake), or had grossly overestimated the distance to the Grotto, this would be the most likely candidate for his "Finn's Glen". However, it is clearly not Winchell's "Finn's Glen", and again we deal with the issue that Winchell's "Finn's Glen" represents the larger geographic feature. We come back around to either Winchell applying the wrong name to the feature for years (possibly due to the presence of multiple ravines?), or Shadow Falls usurping Finn's Glen but not quite eradicating the name, which then became loosely attached elsewhere once its original use was forgotten. (Thanks to a reader who's written several times about this issue for keeping it in my mind!)


Empson, D. L. 2006. The street where you live: a guide to the place names of St. Paul. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Upham, W. 1920. Minnesota geographic names: their origin and historic significance. Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society 17. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Winchell, N. H. 1877. The geology of Hennepin County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 5:131–201.

Winchell, N. H. 1878. The geology of Ramsey County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 6:66–92.

Winchell, N. H. 1888. The geology of Ramsey County. Pages 345–374 in N. H. Winchell and W. Upham. The geology of Minnesota. Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey, Final Report 2. Johnson, Smith & Harrison, state printers, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Sunday, August 15, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Hamititan xinjiangensis

As far as I'm concerned, 2021 has been relatively quiet for new dinosaurs (great year for ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs, though; I might even learn to spell "ophthalmosaurid" correctly the first time through). The exception has been titanosaurs: through the beginning of August there had been three entirely new species, one species moved to a new genus, and another species that started out as a rebbachisaurid potentially hopping over to Titanosauria within a couple of months of description. Hamititan xinjiangensis makes another new addition. It was published this week (Wang et al. 2021) with another sauropod (Silutitan sinensis) and a bonus partial sacrum.

Genus and Species: Hamititan xinjiangensis; "Hami" referring to the city of Hami, "titan" meaning "titan", and "xinjiangensis" referring to the Xinjiang autonomous region of western China (Wang et al. 2021). Together they mean something akin to "Hami titan from Xinjiang".

Citation: Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Stratigraphy and Geography: H. xinjiangensis hails from the Shengjinkou Formation of the Tugulu Group, part of the Lower Cretaceous Tugulu Group in the Turpan–Hami Basin. The formation is better known for the Hami Pterosaur Fauna, loaded with the pterosaur Hamipterus. The holotype and only known specimen of H. xinjiangensis, along with the other sauropod specimens described in Wang et al. (2021), came from lacustrine sandstone. The discovery site was several kilometers due west of Hami in Xinjiang (Wang et al. 2021).

Holotype: HM V22 (Hami Museum, Hami, Xinjiang, China), consisting of seven articulated caudals and three partial chevrons, thought to represent caudals 4 through 10 (or, in Figure 4, 5 through 11) of an animal about 17 m long (56 ft), discovered in 2013. A small theropod shed tooth was found nearby (Wang et al. 2021).

Figure 4 in Wang et al. (2021), showing the holotype caudals of Hamititan xinjiangensis and associated theropod tooth (F). Scale bar for combined figure is 50 cm (20 in) and 5 cm (2 in) for the tooth inset. See here for full caption. CC BY 4.0.

Is H. xinjiangensis indeed a titanosaur? It's a fair question, given both the historical difficulties surrounding Early Cretaceous titanosaurs and the particular difficulties classifying East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropods, which seem to be doing their own thing. First things first: H. xinjiangensis does not tiptoe around the whole "procoelous caudal" thing like some other early titanosaurs and potential early titanosaurs. It is boldly, proudly procoelous. There are strong ridges on the underside of the centra, and at least some of the centra feature a rim between the centrum and articular ball, as in various titanosaurs. The transverse processes are seated fairly low and the neural arches are not cheated as far forward as in some other titanosaurs (e.g., aeolosaurs). The bones do not feature spongy texture (Wang et al. 2021). Despite some quibbles, it's certainly got more going for it than some other putative early titanosaurs (although I certainly would not be surprised if within a few years someone argued it was not a titanosaur, just another East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropod with a titanosaur-like tail).

Is it Silutitan? Well, we can be reasonably certain that the holotype of H. xinjiangensis is not from the same individual as the holotype of S. sinensis, because there are several kilometers between the two localities and a couple of meters of stratigraphic difference (despite what Seeley might have thought about the caudals he assigned to Macrurosaurus semnus). To look at this phylogenetically, Wang et al. (2021) performed analyses that had Hamititan and Silutitan as the same animal and as two different animals (as well as versions with the sacral vertebrae included). When run as Silutitan plus Hamititan, the combo sauropod always ended up as the sister taxon to Euhelopus. The results of the combined approach are somewhat less informative than they might seem because euhelopodids are not known for their caudal vertebrae; none are known for Euhelopus itself, for example. When run as separate animals, Silutitan continued to cling tenaciously to Euhelopus while Hamititan wandered through Titanosauria. Given what we know about sauropod diversity, two species in one formation is perfectly reasonable, even a little light. (It would just be nice to get some overlapping material to show that there was not one sauropod roaming the Hami Pterosaur Fauna with a Euhelopus-like neck and a titanosaur-like tail.)


Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Sunday, August 8, 2021

Geranosaurus atavus

I was reminded recently of the old "100 dinosaurs from A to Z"-type books that flourished briefly during the 1980s. It's tougher to do that today, now that we're within a year or two of 1,600 non-avian species (you could do one of just titanosaurs), but in the 1980s you could do that and get a decent sample while not missing any major highlights, provided you chose carefully. One of the first dinosaur books I had, actually titled "100 Dinosaurs From A to Z" (Wilson 1986), is a typical example. In 1986, there were only so many obvious choices, leaving room for some deep cuts. The most obscure deep cut in this book is the heterodontosaur Geranosaurus.

Sunday, August 1, 2021

Practical applications of Chesapecten, early 19th century

"Fossil pectens of a large size, some of them ten inches wide, are found abundantly in the lower part of Virginia. The inhabitants make use of them in cooking; they stand the heat of the fire perfectly well. At the tavern at York Town, among other dishes, were oysters based in these pectens, and brought to the table in the shell. I wanted the company of a few scientific friends to enjoy the treat. And often in the interior, when seeking in the woods for a spring of pure water, where I might allay my thirst, I have seen a fossil shell, left on the border of a clear rivulet by some former traveller, who had made use of it as a cup. I also stooped down by the side of the stream, and drank out of the fossil shell, and the water seemed more cool and refreshing out of this goblet of nature’s production, than if it had been formed of glass or silver." (Finch 1833)

Chesapecten madisonius, not quite as famous as C. jeffersonius but still quite nice.


Finch, J. 1833. Travels in the United States of America and Canada. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, London, United Kingdom.